A Journey Through Gemstone World: 12 Varieties You Should Know

Written by YGH


Posted on May 14 2024

Gemstones have captivated humans for centuries, with their stunning beauty, rarity, and enduring value. From ancient civilizations to modern times, these precious stones have been sought after for their aesthetic appeal and symbolic significance. In this blog post, we will explore 12 fascinating gemstone varieties that every enthusiast should know.

The Big Four: Diamonds, Rubies, Sapphires, and Emeralds


Diamonds are formed under high pressure and temperature conditions deep within the Earth's mantle. They are renowned for their unparalleled hardness, brilliance, and fire. As the hardest natural substance on Earth, diamonds rank a 10 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. This unique property makes them ideal for various industrial applications, such as cutting tools and abrasives. Throughout history, diamonds have been associated with love, commitment, and eternal bonds. This symbolism can be traced back to ancient Roman times when diamonds were believed to be the tears of the gods or splinters from falling stars.

circle diamond


Rubies are a vibrant red variety of the mineral corundum, which is composed of aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The red color is caused by the presence of chromium within the crystal structure. Rubies can range in color from pinkish-red to a deep, rich "pigeon's blood" red, with the most sought-after hues being a balanced, saturated red.
The finest rubies are found primarily in Myanmar (formerly Burma), Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Rubies have been prized for their beauty and rarity for centuries, with historical significance in various cultures. In ancient India, rubies were called "ratnaraj," or "king of precious stones," and were believed to offer protection and promote peace. In medieval Europe, rubies were worn by royalty and nobility as a symbol of wealth and power. Today, they remain a symbol of passion, courage, and prosperity.




Sapphires are another variety of corundum, coming in a wide range of colors, including blue, pink, yellow, green, purple, and orange. The most well-known and sought-after color is a rich, deep blue, caused by the presence of iron and titanium within the crystal structure.
Sapphires are found in several locations around the world, with the most notable sources being Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Australia, and Myanmar. In folklore and tradition, sapphires are associated with wisdom, loyalty, and divine favor. In ancient Greece and Rome, sapphires were believed to protect the wearer from harm and to promote spiritual enlightenment. During the Middle Ages, sapphires were worn by the clergy as a symbol of heaven and were believed to attract divine blessings.



Emeralds are a lush green variety of the mineral beryl, which is a silicate of beryllium and aluminum. The green color is caused by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium within the crystal structure. Emeralds are often characterized by their inclusions, or internal imperfections, which can give the stone a unique, mossy appearance known as the "jardin" (French for "garden"). The finest emeralds are mined in Colombia, particularly in the Muzo and Chivor regions. These stones are known for their vivid, saturated green color and high transparency. Nowadays, emeralds remain a symbol of growth, renewal, and prosperity.



Feldspar Family: Moonstone, Labradorite, and Sunstone


Moonstones are a variety of feldspar known for their enchanting adularescence, a phenomenon that creates a soft, billowy glow reminiscent of moonlight. Moonstones are formed from sodium potassium feldspar and are found primarily in Sri Lanka, India, Australia, and the United States. They have a Mohs hardness of 6 to 6.5, making them suitable for various types of jewelry, including rings, pendants, and earrings. Today, moonstones are cherished for their serene beauty and are believed to promote emotional balance, inner growth, and feminine energy. They are popular among crystal enthusiasts and are often used in meditation and energy healing practices.




Labradorite displays a captivating play of colors known as labradorescence, featuring flashes of blue, green, and gold against a dark background. It has gained popularity in designer jewelry and fashion accessories, particularly in statement pieces that highlight the stone's dramatic and eye-catching appearance.
In spiritual and metaphysical circles, labradorite is believed to be a stone of transformation and magic. It is thought to enhance intuition, strengthen the connection between the conscious and subconscious mind, and protect the aura from negative energies. Some also associate labradorite with the Northern Lights, believing that it can help manifest one's dreams and desires into reality.

Kite Shape Labradorite


Sunstones showcase a glittery effect called aventurescence, caused by inclusions of copper or hematite. They come in warm shades of orange, red, and gold, reminiscent of the sun's rays. The finest sunstones are found in Oregon, USA, where they are designated as the state's official gemstone.
In various spiritual traditions, sunstones are believed to embody the energy of the sun, bringing light, warmth, and abundance to the wearer. They are thought to boost self-confidence, creativity, and personal power, making them popular among artists, entrepreneurs, and those seeking to overcome self-doubt or fear.
Sunstones are also associated with good fortune and success, with some believing that they can attract wealth, prosperity, and opportunities. In feng shui, sunstones are often placed in the fame and reputation area of a home or workspace to enhance recognition and positive visibility.

Pear Sunstones

Other Notable Varieties: Opal, Pearl, Alexandrite, Moissanite, and Moss Agate


Opals are known for their mesmerizing play-of-color, a phenomenon caused by the diffraction of light through the stone's microscopic silica spheres. As the stone moves, it displays a mesmerizing spectrum of hues, from vibrant reds and greens to shimmering blues and purples. They are found in several types, including white, black, and fire opals. Opals have been featured in art and popular culture, often associated with mystery and enchantment. Australia is the world's primary source of opals, particularly the famous black opals from Lightning Ridge and the white opals from Coober Pedy. Other notable sources include Mexico, known for its fire opals, and Ethiopia, a newer source of high-quality opals. Throughout history, opals have been featured in art, literature, and popular culture, often associated with mystery, enchantment, and sometimes superstition.

Oval Opal


Pearls are the only gemstones formed within living creatures, namely mollusks such as oysters and mussels. They are created when an irritant, such as a grain of sand or a parasite, enters the mollusk's shell, prompting the creature to secrete layers of nacre, a lustrous substance that coats the irritant and forms the pearl.
Pearls come in various types, including natural pearls, which form without human intervention, and cultured pearls, which are created by manually inserting an irritant into the mollusk. Imitation pearls, made from materials like glass or plastic, are also available as affordable alternatives.
Pearls are found in a range of colors, from classic white and cream to exotic shades of black, gold, and lavender. The most valuable pearls are those with a high luster, a smooth surface, and a round or symmetrical shape.



Alexandrite is a rare and fascinating variety of chrysoberyl that exhibits a remarkable color change from green in daylight to red under incandescent light. This unique property is caused by the presence of chromium ions within the crystal structure, which absorbs different wavelengths of light depending on the illumination source.
Alexandrite was first discovered in Russia's Ural Mountains in 1830 and was named after Czar Alexander II, who came of age that same year. The stone quickly gained popularity among Russian aristocracy and was later coveted by collectors and gem enthusiasts worldwide. Due to its scarcity and color-changing abilities, alexandrite is one of the most valuable gemstones, with high-quality specimens fetching prices comparable to those of fine diamonds.

Teardrop Alexandrite


Moissanite is a lab-created gemstone that has gained popularity as a budget-friendly and eco-conscious alternative to mined diamonds. It is composed of silicon carbide and was first discovered in its natural form within meteorites by French chemist Henri Moissan in 1893.
Due to the rarity of natural moissanite, the gemstones available today are primarily lab-created. They are crafted using advanced technological processes that mimic the high pressure and temperature conditions under which diamonds form in the Earth's mantle.

Kite Shape Moissanite


Moss Agate

Moss agate is formed through the process of chemical weathering, in which mineral-rich waters seep into cavities within the host rock, depositing layers of silica along with the metal oxides that create the moss-like patterns. The most valuable moss agates are those with well-defined, intricate inclusions that contrast sharply with the translucent background.
The primary sources of moss agate include India, Brazil, and the United States, particularly Montana and Wyoming. It is a relatively affordable gemstone and is often used in jewelry designs that showcase its distinctive patterns, such as pendants, earrings, and cabochon rings. In spiritual and metaphysical circles, moss agate is believed to have grounding and stabilizing properties. It is thought to promote emotional balance, strengthen one's connection to nature, and enhance mental clarity and concentration.

Moss agate


Explore the World of Gemstones!

The world of gemstones is vast and wonderful, with each variety possessing its own unique qualities and allure. From the timeless elegance of diamonds to the mysterious depths of opals, these 12 gemstone varieties showcase the incredible diversity and beauty found in nature's treasures. As we continue to be captivated by the brilliance and symbolism of gemstones, it is important to recognize and appreciate their role in our lives. Whether worn as a cherished piece of jewelry or displayed as a prized collector's item, gemstones have the power to inspire, delight, and forge a deep connection between us and the wonders of the natural world.